Dogs are social animals, and many are food motivated. So teaching them to do things to please the owner, and with a food reward, is often not too hard. Some dogs are not as food motivated, but they may work for more personal time with the owner.
So what types of things should that new puppy learn? If you added a new member to your family over the summer, and your schedule has changed because of school, keep the structure in the puppy’s routine. A summer schedule can differ significantly from a fall/winter schedule, confusing the young dog. He will make mistakes because he does not know what you want. Many dogs find it stressful to be home alone all day after a summer of everyone spending all day with them. To counteract this, you may want to look into some interactive toys. There are food toys available for both dogs and cats. These toys can be filled with treats or food and require the animal to do something (usually roll the toy around) to get the food out. This keeps the animal thinking and occupied while you are away or busy helping with homework at night. There are also puzzle games for those of you with very inquisitive dogs. These are not meant to be used without supervision but can be used to stimulate the dog to figure out problems. Some clients use them as a special time for their dogs. Of course, nothing is better than spending time playing with your dog. Fetch can be used to help your dog learn how to come. And teaching him to give you the toy on command will help if he grabs things he is not supposed to have. You could always play hide and seek with his toys also. This again stimulates him to think and can teach him other commands, such as sit and stay while you hide the toy.
A young puppy needs to learn what he is allowed to do and not allowed to do, manners. A young dog should be handled all over, especially the feet, mouth, and ears. This teaches him that toenail trims, ear cleanings, and giving pills are not the end of the world. All dogs should be trained to walk on a leash; leash manners are important even if your dog does not go many places yet. If a hurricane or family emergency occurs, and you must board the dog, leash walking is necessary.
Now, how about training your cat? Many people think that cats cannot be taught, but they can. Cats are not overly social animals, so they are not motivated to please their owner. And most cats are picky about their food, so you need to find something super tasty to train them. And cats do not respond well to punishment, so you must use positive reinforcement. It may take longer than with a dog, but teaching cats to fetch, use the toilet, sit and wait, or just about anything you can imagine is possible. You just have to be more creative about how to teach something with a cat. And back to that hurricane thing, you might want to teach your cat how to load into a carrier if you need to leave in a hurry.
Clicker training is a good option for dogs, cats, and other animals. The clicker marks your desired behavior and allows many animals to learn faster because they understand what you want better. If you are interested in this type of training, do your research first. It can be a great way to enhance your relationship with your pet.